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Lean comes from the Japanese manufacturing industry and it was first used in an article in 1988 by John Krafcik, a quality engineer for Toyota. Lean emerged in the industrial machinery and components industry within the factory walls, where early adopters relied on visual and manual tools to focus on process change: material ow, lead times, and manufacturing process throughput. So, lean can be implemented in any enterprise, from the manufacturing sector to the service sector. Lean initiatives and Six Sigma combine to enable the lean enterprise. The object
of lean initiatives is to drive operational effectiveness and minimize or stop waste by identifying and eliminating any activity that does not add value in the eyes of the
customer.

Evolving into the lean enterprise is a lengthy process. Most companies begin by identifying key people and then start to train them in lean methodology and principles. After training, these specialists establish spreadsheets outlining measures to reduce inventory and speed the manufacturing process. Once the factory has gone lean, it is time to implement the same principles outside the factory walls and into the supply chain, this way you force the upstream and downstream vendors to increase value for customers. Taiichi Ohno of Toyota has identified 7 types of waste(non-value adding).

1. Overproduction: Making more parts than you can sell.
2. Delay: Waiting for processing or parts sitting in storage.
3. Transporting: Taking parts and materials to various storage locations and from
process to process.
4. Over-Processing: Doing more
5. Inventory: Committing money and storage space to parts not sold.
6. Motion: Moving parts or people more than the minimum needed to complete and
ship them.
7. Making Defective Parts: Creating parts that cannot be sold as is, or that must
be reworked etc.

We can add an 8th type of waste, Untapped Human Potential(Failing to tap into the creativity, abilities and talents of your workforce) and contend that this waste often has a far greater impact on companies than all other wastes combined. So if all these wastes can be removed, or at least reduced, we can say that Lean implementation was successful. The biggest challenge to ean is applying the right tools in the right order to the right process. And it really starts with finding the right process. This is certainly the process that is hurting your customers the most, costing your company the most money, wasting the most time and resources. Identifying where to start for the greatest impact in your Lean efforts comes from understanding the concept of Value-Adding vs. Non-Value Adding activities. The main purpose of lean is not cost savings as many would think, but creating a foundation to support
profitable growth.
Also, lean processes support the creation of both new products that are efficient and profitable as well as introduce value added services to the products you already have.
For this to happen, you need to be highly adaptable to the new technological platforms by ensuring interoperability between applications and systems. As a conclusion, en-
terprises that integrate Lean into their philosophy get increased responsiveness(react quickly to market change), greater efficiency(shorter lead-times, add value per product, speed up manufacturing process) and reduced operating costs(ensure the highest level of quality and customer service, while minimizing costs). Lean is a continuous
process and stopping the implementation once you reach an objective is not indicated. You must set new standards and targets for your company permanently.
Some tools that facilitate the implementation of lean are: 5S Visual Workplace, standardized Work Instructions(SWIs), Total Productive Maintenance(TPM), Error
and mistake proofing, 5W, SMED(also known as setup reduction) or KanBan imple-mentation.

Continutul acestui material nu reprezinta în mod obligatoriu pozitia oficiala a Uniunii Europene sau a Guvernului României